Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in North America, occurring in 3% to 8% of school-age children and an even smaller proportion of adults. ADHD is a chronic syndrome of age-inappropriate inattention, including distractibility, forgetfulness, disorganization, and an inability to complete tasks or follow instructions. When elements of hyperactivity and impulsivity are present, this includes impatience and excessive, unreflective behavior and speech. A simplified checklist of symptoms associated with ADHD includes careless mistakes, not seeming to listen, not completing tasks, difficulty staying organized, and tasks that require sustained mental effort. These include avoidance or aversion to things, losing things, being easily distracted by external stimuli, restlessness or restlessness, and difficulty. Plays quietly, moves around, talks excessively, blurts out answers before questions are finished, has difficulty waiting their turn, and performs poorly.
In addition to the impairments listed above, there are also impairments in social skills and peer status. Most children with ADHD have difficulty keeping friends, and some have difficulty making friends. Children with ADHD typically perform poorly in school and are unable to reach desired levels, even if they do not have co-occurring learning disabilities (i.e., disorders related to ADHD). Notably, people with ADHD have a higher incidence of traffic accidents and accidental head injuries caused by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Additionally, it is important to note that ADHD behavioral patterns must be present for at least 6 months and begin by age 12. This criterion also requires that the symptoms cause impairment in at least two settings (home, school, or social settings). Taken together, these criteria suggest that ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder.
It is of paramount importance for physicians to specialize in identifying disorders that resemble or may coexist with ADHD. These include oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, and mood disorder.
Amongst current treatments for ADHD, seizure disorders, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression include EEG (Electroencephalographic) Biofeedback/ Neurofeedback. This treatment meets the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry guideline ratings for treatment of ADHD. Additionally, neurofeedback meets the most stringent American Psychological Association standards for effective and specific treatments. The support of these organizations suggests that Neurofeedback should always be considered as a first-line treatment for ADHD or other disorders if the parent or patient does not wish to take medication. However, neurofeedback can also be used in conjunction with medication and psychotherapy.